About Job Analysis, Importance, Process and Methods | People Venture

What is Job Analysis?

A Job Analysis is a method used to obtain information about the tasks, responsibilities, required skills, outcomes, and work environment of a specific job.

Objectives:

Determination of the most efficient methods of doing a job.

Enhancement of job satisfaction.

Improvement in training methods.

Matching job specification with employee’s skillset.

Importance of Job Analysis:

Determining the success of a job depends on the impartial proper and thorough analysis. It also helps in hiring the right people for a particular position. The primary purpose of conducting this entire process is to form and establish an accurate fit within the employee and the job.

Additionally, Job analysis helps HR managers in determining the compensation packages and extra perks and incentives for a specific job position. It effectively contributes to estimating the training requirements and performance of the current employees. The process forms the base to design and establish the tactics and policies to fulfill organizational goals.

However, analysis of a specific job does not ensure that the managers or organization would get the coveted output. Collecting and recording data for one particular job involves several difficulties. If the information is not correct and reviewed from time to time, an employee will not be able to do his duty well. Until and unless he or she is not aware of what they supposed to do or what is expected from them, the probabilities are that the time and energy spent on a particular work is an utter wastage of human resources. Therefore, care should be taken while conveying a job analysis.

Thorough and impartial research or study of a particular job is useful for both the directors and the employees. The handlers get to know who and why to hire. They can fulfill a place with the right person. On the other hand, potential or existing representatives get to understand what and how they are supposed to perform that job and what is the aspired output. Job analysis makes the right fit between the employee and the job.

Analyzing the work duties, task, and responsibilities that the employee filling the position need to accomplish plays a vital role. Not every position within an organization is optimized. You may find tasks that are undone or projects that you should move from one section to another. You may discover a duty that another job would more favorably and efficiently accomplish.

When you’re doing analysis, make sure you look at the needs of the organization. Then, work with directors to add the proper tasks to the relevant job analysis.

Process of job analysis:

Organizational analysis:

The initial step in the work analysis process is to define its purpose. This will help you to decide what kind of data to collect and how to manage it. The required background information for this step can be achieved by using process charts, organization charts, and job descriptions.

Select representative positions:

It will be time-consuming and costly to analyze all jobs in an organization. So, it is essential to select a representative sample of posts for detail work analysis.

Gather data:

The next step is to obtain all the job-related data such as qualification, roles, responsibilities, working conditions, employee behavior, abilities, and skills. 

This data is obtained by using methods such as interviews, observation, and survey.

Study collected data:

A  work analysis report is prepared by using the collected data. The data is then verified with the worker doing the job and their supervisor.

Developing a job description:

The data collected is used to create a written statement known as a job description. This job description is a document that defines the duties, working conditions, responsibilities, locations, and tasks required for effective work performance.

Developing job specification:

The last step in the process is to prepare job specification. Job descriptions and job specifications are two actual results of the job analysis process. The job specification is a statement of educational qualification, personal traits, experience, background, and skills.

Approaches to job analysis-

Job analysis is done by using two methods:

Task-oriented approach:

Task-oriented approach to job analysis focuses on the actual activities involved in a job. It mainly considers the responsibilities and duties. HR managers develop job statements that mention the functions of a role in detail.

The tasks are then rated based on difficulty, importance, recurrence, etc. This helps in having an understanding of the necessities of a job.

Worker oriented approach:

Studying human attributes of a job is another approach of work analysis. These traits are classified as skills, knowledge, abilities, and other aspects.

Methods of job analysis:

Different techniques, such as in the interview, observation, task inventories, checklists,& questionnaire. Selecting the method or combination of methods of work analysis depends upon the requirements and necessity of the organization.

Here are the most common job analysis techniques used by organizations:

Observation method:

The job analyst recognizes and records the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of an employee. This also includes the skills and techniques used by them to complete the job. This is the most challenging method of work analysis.

This is because every individual has their way of observation and understanding, which can involve personal biases. This error can be lessened by choosing a suitably trained job analyst.

Interview method:

The Analyst interviews representatives to know about their skills, working style, problems, and techniques they used, and uncertainties about their works.

This method helps the job analyst to know what an employee thinks of his work and the duties it requires. The completion of this method depends upon the genuineness of feedback and data collected from employees.

Questionnaire method:

In this process, the analyst provides an employee with a simple questionnaire to recognize the responsibilities, duties, environment, and problems related to work.

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